Biomedical Laboratory Science

Friday, October 20, 2017

Is Placenta a 'superfood' or a Dietary Fad?

Be it encapsulated, blended in a smoothie, or even roasted with vegetables, there are many ways that a woman can choose to consume her placenta after childbirth. With this vital pregnancy organ gaining traction as a "superfood," more new mothers are considering the practice. But is eating placenta really beneficial?

The practice of eating placenta, or "placentophagy," is common in the animal kingdom.

It is believed that most non-human mammals with a placenta consume their "afterbirth" — as the placenta is otherwise known — as a way of eradicating the scent of their newborn and protecting them against predators.

Other literature suggests that animals eat their placenta as a way of regaining nutrients that might have been lost during delivery, and to encourage mother-child bonding.

It is the latter hypotheses that have made placentophagy attractive to human mothers, and with celebrities such as Kim Kardashian and January Jones advocating the practice, it is more popular than ever.

While many new mothers hail the health benefits of eating the afterbirth, critics say that the practice could be more harmful than helpful. We take a look at the evidence for both sides of the argument.


The purpose of the placenta
The placenta is an organ that forms on the wall of the uterus during pregnancy, and it is connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord.


Placentophagy is increasing in popularity, but does it offer health benefits? The placenta is
crucial for a healthy pregnancy. Encapsulation is the most common method of placentophagy.
Placentophagy advocates claim that the practice increases breast milk supply. The CDC report
how a mother who ate placenta pills became infected with group B Streptococcus and passed
it to her child.


Read more: Is Placenta a 'superfood' or a Dietary Fad?



Human placentophagy: a review (Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug 39









Thursday, October 19, 2017

Corneal Repair: A Clear Vision!

Damage to the surface of the cornea causes pain and loss of vision, but regenerative therapies are providing a clearer, brighter future.

If the eyes are the window to the soul, then it is the cornea that lets the light enter.

For more than 200 years, physicians have been preoccupied with keeping this dome-shaped, transparent surface in front of the iris and pupil clear. German surgeon Franz Reisinger was the first to attempt a corneal transplant in animals in 1818. And in 1838, US ophthalmologist Richard Kissam tried to replace the opaque cornea of a young patient with the healthy cornea of a pig, but the procedure failed when the transplant was rejected. The first successful transplant in humans was in 1905, but outcomes remained poor until the mid-twentieth century, when developments in infection control, anaesthesiology, surgical techniques and immunology vastly improved the success rate of corneal transplantation. In the twenty-first century, advances in cell-culture techniques and bioengineering have opened the door to regenerative treatments for people with damage to one or both corneas.

Unclouded vision requires a clear cornea. Its epithelial surface constantly renews itself to maintain an unblemished, uniformly refractive surface. Cells that are shed from the surface are replaced by new ones that emanate from a small population of stem cells located at the edge, or limbus, of the cornea.

If the stem cells at the limbus are damaged, the renewal process is interrupted. The complete or partial loss of these stem cells — limbal stem-cell deficiency (LSCD) — allows the opaque conjunctiva to grow over the cornea. This can lead to intense pain and, in the most-severe cases, blindness.


Let there be sight -David Holmes




Download article in PDF




Nature Video: Repairing the cornea: let there be sight





Source: Nature

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Increases Cardiac Risk!

Androgen-deprivation therapy, which is a common treatment for prostate cancer, has been tentatively linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A new study solidifies these concerns.

Prostate cancer needs testosterone to grow and thrive, so androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is designed to reduce the amount of testosterone in the body to close to zero, thereby helping to slow cancer's growth.

Although the findings are controversial, some studies have shown that ADT combined with radiation therapy is more successful at treating prostate cancer than just radiation alone.

Currently, ADT is recommended for advanced prostate cancer. But it is increasingly being used to treat localized prostate cancer, despite minimal evidence for its efficacy.

At the same time, the number of localized prostate cancer cases has increased dramatically over recent years, due in part to the more widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.

Side effects of ADT — including erectile dysfunction, diabetes, bone loss, and swollen breast tissue, or gynecomastia — can be fairly substantial. Added to this, there is growing evidence to suggest that low testosterone levels might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


A common prostate cancer treatment comes under scrutiny in a new study.





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Tuesday, October 17, 2017

Nepal Grameen Bikas Bank (NGBBL) FPO Result, Check if You're Lucky!

Nepal Grameen Bikas Bank Ltd. (NGBBL) has allocated its Further Public Offering (FPO) on Tuesday. According to Prabhu Capital Ltd., the issue manager of the bank, out of 250,524 applicants 97,500 applicants were provided 10 units of mandatory shares through the lottery system.




Of the total 250,524 applications, 3,791 were canceled. The bank issued 975,000 units of FPO shares from 12th to 15th September 2017. The issuance was oversubscribed by 27.69 times.




After the FPO issuance, the paid-up capital of the bank is raised to Rs. 655.5 million. The bank earned a net profit of Rs. 161.4 million in the last Fiscal Year.






Check the link below to see the result at MeroLagani Site:






Check the link below to see the result at ShareSansar Site:






Check the link below to see the result at Prabhu Capital Site:






Check the link below to see all allottees list in excel format:







Check the link below to see/download all allottees list in pdf format:




Check the link to DOWNLOAD and press CTRL + F to for search box.


Check the link below to search if your name in the the non-allottees list at Prabhu Capital Site:








ShareUpdateNepal: Tuesday 17th October 2017

Monday, October 16, 2017

Causes of High PSA that are not Cancer !

The prostate-specific antigen test is a blood test that measures levels of a protein the prostate gland produces. Men with prostate cancer usually have elevated levels of this protein, but heightened levels do not always mean cancer.

Other health conditions may also cause prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels to rise. In some cases, an elevated PSA is temporary and not a sign of a health problem at all.

Cells in the prostate gland produce PSA and levels typically remain below 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).

Most men with prostate cancer have PSA levels above 4 ng/mL, but about 15 percent of men with a PSA level below 4 ng/mL are also diagnosed with prostate cancer. This means that a PSA test alone cannot rule out or diagnose prostate cancer but can identify whether a man is at higher risk of having or developing the disease.

Initial testing may include both a PSA test and a digital rectal exam (DRE). During this examination, a doctor inserts a finger into the rectum to check the prostate for abnormalities. Together, if these two tests suggest prostate cancer, then the doctor will arrange for a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

False positives - a high PSA level, but no cancer - on the PSA test are common. PSA levels rise with age and other factors. Men with high PSA levels should follow up with a doctor, but should not assume they have cancer.


A high PSA level may not always indicate prostate cancer.




Source: MedicalNewsToday






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