Biomedical Laboratory Science

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Colorecal Cancer: Minimally Invasive, Triple-Therapy Patch Destroys Tumors

Research released by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology describes an adhesive patch that can deliver a triple-combination of drug, gene, and light-based therapy to colorectal tumors.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is 1 in 21 for men and 1 in 23 for women.

Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth, or tumor, on the inner lining of the colon or rectum called a polyp, and they can change to cancer over many years. Not all polyps become cancer.

It usually takes around 10-15 years for abnormal cells to grow into colorectal tumors. With regular screening, polyps can be removed before they develop into cancer.

Although the type of treatment for colorectal cancer largely depends on the stage of cancer, treatment options are often surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

The triple-therapy patch could be used to treat any remaining cancer cells at the tumor site after surgery.

Sunday, July 24, 2016

If You Want to Study in the United States

Book 2: Graduate and Professional Study and Research

Graduate and Professional Study and Research — how to research and apply to U.S. master’s, doctoral degree, and postdoctoral programs, plus information on certification and licensing procedures for professionals who wish to further their education or practice in the United States.

It is one of a series of four introductory booklets published by the U.S. Department of State to provide objective and practical advice to prospective international students and scholars on studying in the United States.

Know the Common Causes of Breast Pain

Women of all ages report having breast pain, also known as mastalgia. Pain can occur both before and after the menopause. However, breast pain is most common in younger menstruating women.

While nearly 70 percent of women report breast pain at some point during their lives, only around 15 percent require medical treatment.

The severity and location of breast pain can vary. Pain can occur in both breasts, one breast, or in the underarm. Severity can range from mild to severe and is typically described as tenderness, sharp burning, or tightening of the breast tissue.

Hormonal changes due to events such as menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause can also have an effect on the type of breast pain experienced.

Breast pain can sometimes occur alongside changes in the menstrual cycle. Oral hormonal contraceptives
can lead to breast pain in some cases.

What You Need To Do For A Good Sleep

Are you having restless nights? Are you finding it difficult to sleep throughout the night? Well, if you aren't aware of what you need to do for a good sleep, you must go through this article to get yourself acquainted about some of the simple tips for a healthy sleep.

According to various researches, it has been found out that there are a myriad of habits and practices that can help you have a good night's sleep. This is also called "Sleep Hygiene".

Source: boldsky/health/wellness

Funny Picture 16: "Alone, you're annoyed. Together, you're a pair annoyed."

MCQ 11. Anaerobic glycolysis, NAD+ and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

MCQ 11. Under conditions of anaerobic glycolysis, the NAD+ required by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is supplied by a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme.

Which is this enzyme?
a. glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
b. alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
c. lactate dehydrogenase
d. malate dehydrogenase
e. pyruvate dehydrogenase

Correct answer: Click here

'Smart Thread' Enables 3-D Tissue Embedding for Medical Diagnostics

By integrating microfluidic networks, nano-scale sensors, and electronics, researchers have created implantable, thread-like devices that can be sutured through several layers of tissue in 3-D to gather and send diagnostic data wirelessly as it happens.

Writing the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering, the team - led by engineers from Tufts University in Medford, MA - says the new "smart thread" diagnostic platform could form the basis of a new generation of implantable medical diagnostics and smart wearable devices.

The paper describes the creation of microfluidic threads that can be sutured through several layers of tissue to sample fluid. The network of microfluidic circuits "interface intimately with biological tissues in three dimensions," note the authors.

The microfluidic threads penetrate several layers to sample tissue fluid and channel it to sensing
threads that collect data, such as pH and glucose levels. Electrically conductive threads then
deliver the data to a flexible wireless transmitter that can be sited on top of the skin.

Current Approaches for the Detection of Acute Kidney Injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a recognized complication in hospitalized patients. A report in 2009 from National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) suggested that AKI was frequently undetected in hospital patients thus contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. Clinical guidelines for recognition and treatment for acute kidney injury were published by NICE (the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) in 2013 and reported an associated mortality with AKI of more than 25–30%. This guideline also recognized the prevalence of AKI in the primary care population in patients with or without acute illness. NICE also recognized the impact of AKI on healthcare resources, with costs (excluding those in the community) of £434–620 million per year, more than that associated with breast, lung and skin cancer combined

AKI is characterized by an acute loss of the kidney’s excretory capacity leading to accumulation of waste products such as urea and creatinine, and decreased urine output. It is associated with rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and increases in potassium, phosphate and hydrogen ions. It has varied causes and may be secondary to a non-renal event, thus may be common in hospitalized patients and critically ill patients. It may go undetected in primary care as it can occur without any symptoms. There are associations between co-morbidities, current medications, acute illness and AKI resulting in the high morbidity associated with the condition and the impact on healthcare resources.

Source: cli-online

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