Biomedical Laboratory Science

Saturday, July 16, 2016

MCQ 10. The glycoprotein hormones are a family of cystine rich proteins


MCQ 10. The glycoprotein hormones are a family of cystine rich proteins consisting of an alpha and beta subunit, and are characterized by their heavy glycosylation.

Which of the following is a glycoprotein hormone?
a. Cortisol  
b. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRG)
c. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) 
d. Thyrotropin (TSH)
e. Oxytocin

Answers

Does Going to the Hospital Make You Sicker?

During a hospital stay, people usually hope to have a medical condition treated effectively so they can recover fully, go home and stay home. But it's not uncommon for a hospitalization to lead to a new health problem that's serious enough to require hospital readmission within 30 days.

The phenomenon, dubbed "post-hospital syndrome" by Dr. Harlan Krumholz, a cardiologist and professor of medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, is roughly defined as an acquired, transient period of increased risk for illness after a hospital stay, one that leads to re-hospitalization.


You could find yourself back in the hospital – because of the hospital (Getty Images).

Funny Picture 15: "Your Cholesterol is Off by a Wide Margarine."

Source: medicalnewstoday

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Red Meat Consumption Linked to Kidney Failure

A new study, published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, investigated the long-term impact of red meat consumption on kidney health. Their findings justify the current caution suggested in regard to red meat and organ health.

Red meat, such as beef, lamb, and pork, can be included as part of a healthy diet.

But, as with many dietary components, it is best to limit the amount consumed.

For instance, the American Institute for Cancer Research recommend eating no more than 18 ounces of red meat per month because of its links with certain cancers, including stomach cancer.


Research investigates the effects of red meat on kidney health.

Heart Transplantation Recipients Unaffected by Donor Troponin Levels

Many transplant centers routinely reject hearts if the donor’s blood test reveals elevated levels of troponin I, a protein found in heart muscle that enters the bloodstream when there is a heart attack or other heart muscle damage. Donors with previous heart disease are automatically excluded.

Heart transplantation is one of the greatest achievements in modern medicine and patients with advanced heart failure in whom survival is measured in weeks and months are offered the potential for survival of equal to or greater than 10 years with excellent quality of life.

Read more: Heart Transplantation Recipients Unaffected by Donor Troponin Levels

According to new research, a blood test that leads to donor hearts being rejected may not effectively
predict whether a heart transplant will succeed or fail (Photo courtesy of the AMA).
Source: labmedica

Colon Cancer Susceptibility May Vary With Gut Microbes

There is mounting evidence that interactions between our genes and environment can give rise to cancer. Plus, more recently, it has become clear that the environment is not just around us, but also within us, in the form of the trillions of microbes that inhabit our bodies and outnumber our own cells. Now, a new study of rats supports a growing body of evidence that the microbes in our gut do more than help us digest food, they may also affect our susceptibility to colon cancer.

The study, from the University of Missouri in Columbia, features at The Allied Genetic Conference 2016 (TAGC) in Orlando, FL, July 13-17, 2016.

Increasingly, researchers are discovering that cancer is linked to changes in the gut microbes living in our intestines - what is known as the gut microbiota, and commonly referred to as gut bacteria.

For instance, a study published recently suggests gut bacteria may have a role in bile duct cancer.


The study, which was done in rats, suggests the type of microbiota in the gut may
influence susceptibility to colon cancer.
Source: medicalnewstoday

What If No One Believed You Were Sick?

What’s worse than feeling ill? Having no one believe that your condition exists. That’s the reality for many Canadian women living with a slew of diseases that the medical community is slow to recognize as legitimate. Could you be suffering from something serious that your physician has dismissed as 'all in your head'? Read on for information that could change your life and your health.

Noelle Harris has learned to listen to her body, even when it means making sacrifices like canceling coveted vacation plans. For an upbeat, self-confessed Type A person, it’s been a challenging realization that’s come after a long, hard battle with two chronic conditions that affect hundreds of thousands of Canadians: chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia.

Harris’s story begins in 1986, when she developed mononucleosis, followed by bronchitis three months later, then pneumonia and a bad flu several months later. When Harris initially became sick, her doctor was suspicious. 'There’s something wrong with you, but I don’t know what it is,' she told Harris.


© Provided by Best Health What-if-no-one-believed-you-were-sick

Friday, July 15, 2016

H. Pylori: Know the Facts

Helicobacter pylori, commonly called H. pylori, is a type of bacteria that can infect the stomach and small bowel. It was discovered in 1982 by two Australian researchers who found that it causes peptic ulcer disease.

Peptic ulcers are open sores in the lining of the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine. Peptic ulcers are often called "ulcers" or "stomach ulcers."

For years, medical experts believed that peptic ulcers were caused by stress or certain foods. After the discovery of H. pylori, however, this belief was put to rest. A study in Digestive and Liver Disease suggests that 60 to nearly 100 percent of peptic ulcers are associated with H. pylori.


H. pylori bacteria attack the protective lining of the stomach, causing ulcer, that can be diagnosed
with an endoscopy.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Dopamine Neuron Discovery Might Revolutionize Parkinson’s Treatments

Northwestern University researchers say they have identified the neurochemical signal likely missing in Parkinson’s disease. They reportedly discovered two distinctly different kinds of neurons that deliver dopamine to an important brain region responsible for both movement and learning/reward behavior.

“It has been dogma for decades that all dopamine neurons are somehow involved in both movement and reward, but this didn’t really make sense,” said Daniel A. Dombeck, Ph.D., the study’s senior author. “Now, it is so obvious in our recordings that there are different kinds of neurons. We can literally see this in behaving animals. Our findings will likely help answer many questions about Parkinson’s disease and other neurological mysteries.”



Source: genengnews

Could Magnesium Regulate Blood Pressure?

A round one third of adults in the United States have high blood pressure, only half of whom have their high blood pressure under control. New research, published in the American Heart Association's journal Hypertension, identifies magnesium as a potential remedy.

With high blood pressure affecting around 70 million people in the U.S. and increasing the risk of two of the leading causes of death for Americans - heart disease and stroke - preventing or controlling blood pressure is an essential healthcare objective.

Labeled the "silent killer," due to often having no warning signs or symptoms, high blood pressure is a common and often dangerous condition.

A meta-analysis, funded by the Indiana University School of Medicine Strategic Research Initiative, details positive results that show an association between a daily intake of magnesium and a reduction in blood pressure.

Magnesium is already recognized as essential for over 300 biochemical reactions in the body.


A healthy diet rich in green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains could lower
blood pressure.

Are Vitamin Supplements for Pregnant Women a Waste of Money?

It is essential that an expectant mother receives adequate nutrition to promote the healthy development of her unborn child. To this end, the market is awash with maternal vitamin supplements. A new review asks whether these pills are as necessary as they claim to be.

Maternal deficiency of certain nutrients has been linked to a number of negative health consequences for mother and child.

Risks include restricted fetal growth, low birth weight, skeletal deformities, and pre-eclampsia.

These well-known dangers support a huge vitamin, mineral, and micronutrient industry aimed at pregnant women.

Typically, these tablets will contain 20 or more vitamins and minerals, often including a range of B vitamins, C, D, E, K, iodine, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and copper.


Are pregnancy supplements as essential to maternal health as they claim to be?

Monday, July 11, 2016

Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood — Current Knowledge and Open Issues

Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

Key points
  • Subclinical hypothyroidism among children is often a benign and remitting condition, for which risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism depends on the underlying cause (for example, autoimmune disease)
  • The optimum management of children with subclinical hypothyroidism depends on the aetiology and degree of TSH elevation and should be individually tailored
  • The benefits of levothyroxine therapy are clear for the severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism; however, uncertainty about this approach still exists for the mild forms of the condition
  • In the absence of therapeutic intervention, clinical evaluation and thyroid function tests should be regularly performed to ensure early identification of children who might benefit from treatment
  • Growth and neurocognitive outcomes do not seem to be affected in mild subclinical hypothyroidism; however, subtle proatherogenic abnormalities have been detected among children with modest elevations of TSH concentration
  • Cardiovascular risk assessment among children and adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism could help to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood

What is an Inguinal Hernia?

The abdominal cavity is the large hollow space in the body that contains many important organs such as the stomach and liver. An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the abdominal cavity pushes into an area of the body called the inguinal canal.

There are two inguinal canals in the body, one on either side of the groin. Different structures of the body pass through the inguinal canal depending on the person's gender.

In men, the spermatic cord passes through the canal and connects to the testicles. In women, round ligaments that support the uterus pass through the canal.

An inguinal hernia usually affects either the small intestine or the fatty tissue in the abdomen.


Around a quarter of men will have an inguinal hernia at some point in their lives.
Incarcerated or strangulated hernias can cause extreme pain, nausea, and vomiting. 
The only available treatment for an inguinal hernia is surgery.

How Will You Feel During HIV Treatment?

Current combinations of HIV medications have changed the nature of HIV from a terminal illness to one that allows you to live out a nearly normal life. Yet the powerful antiretroviral drugs that help control the virus are known to cause side effects once you start treatment.

Not everyone is affected the same way by the same drugs. You might find the side effects are mild and go away in a few weeks, once your body adapts to the new chemicals. Nausea, diarrhea, and headaches tend to lessen after a month or so.




Source: healthguides

Funny Picture 14: "I Could Only Pronounce You Cured"



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